May is my favourite month because it’s my birth month, but also we get to talk about the most historically revered green gemstone. Emerald is known to be the traditional birthstone for May and is the rich, vivid green variety of the mineral beryl that symbolizes the rebirth and renewal that comes with spring. Emeralds have a long history, with known records of mining dating back to 1500 BCE in Egypt. This was the primary source of emeralds for many years until the 1600s when the Spanish invaded South America and discovered the source in Colombia. Today Colombia is still the primary source of emeralds, with 50-95% of the world’s emerald production. Zambia is in second place, and while emeralds are rare, they can be found worldwide. Even Canada is host to several small deposits of emeralds in the Yukon.
Just like aquamarine, Emerald is identified as:
1) Hexagon Crystal System, not to be confused with crystal habit. (Note, habit is how the mineral crystallizes)
2) Silicate Composition,
- Cyclosilicate Sub-class
3) Silicate Family
4) Mineral = Beryl - Be3Al2Si6O18
5) Variety = Emerald.
As stated before, the varieties of beryl aside from emeralds that you may know well are aquamarine (see March’s blog post for more), morganite (light pink/peach), and heliodor (golden yellow). However, there are other kinds as well, such as goshenite (colourless), red beryl (deep red/crimson), green beryl (light lime to mint green) and maxixe (deep blue colour but fades to brown in daylight due to UV).
How is emerald so green? Emerald (derived from σμάραγδος or smaragdos; ancient Greek for "green gem," big surprise there) gets its colour from traces of chromium, vanadium and iron within the crystal structure. If you want a real head-scratcher, chromium is also responsible for the red colour of rubies. Interestingly this all comes down to how light interacts with chromium ions (chromium (III) to be specific) within the crystal lattice. Without getting too technical, chromium in the beryl will absorb more of the violet and yellow-red wavelengths of visible light; thus, we see green. With rubies, the chromium absorbs more of the blue-green and some yellow wavelengths; thus, we see red. Vanadium, on the other hand, just gives you green; if iron is present, it can give the emerald a blue tinge.
Ready for some REAL gemmology? With the high price of emeralds, there are many synthetics and imitations to watch out for when hunting for emeralds. First, some terminology needs to be explained, mainly the terms “natural,” “synthetic,” imitation,” and “treatment.” A natural gemstone is a stone made from the earth and is what most people desire/expect. A synthetic gemstone is an identical copy of a natural, just made by man. It has the same chemical formula and crystal structure as its natural counterpart. Ideally, “synthetic” should only be used if the manufactured stone has a natural counterpart. If there is no counterpart, this stone is called an “imitation.” An imitation is a stone or material representing another stone. Imitations can be natural or synthetic and confuse many people. Cubic zirconia is one of the most common samples for imitating precious stones. Treatment or a treated stone is a natural stone that humans have tampered with to improve colour saturation, clarity, and durability. We have discovered many exciting ways to help improve the natural beauty of precious stones.
The most common treatment for emeralds is oiling due to their clouded and brittle nature. Oiling is, as the name suggests, the stone is placed in heated oil in a vacuum chamber, and the oil is then drawn into the cracks of the stone. This helps increase the colour of pale stones and seal up fractures to improve the stone’s clarity and durability. Balsam and cedar oil are used for emerald treatment as the refractive index of the oils is similar to the refractive index of emeralds; thus, you can hide the fractures better. This is a common treatment with emeralds and is not always disclosed in the sale. Avoid using strong dish soap and ultrasonic washers to wash your emerald jewellery.
Luckily for you, emeralds are highly desired, and we even accept their impurities. This will include fractures, pockets, and other mineral inclusions. Many refer to the impurities as the emerald jardin, the garden within. With these impurities present, it is relatively easy to discern whether you have a natural, as synthetic and imitation emeralds will appear internally flawless. A flawless gem is the most prized gem. Many of these features of the jardin can be seen with the naked eye or with a loupe. When it comes to synthetic stones, you’ll need a microscope to discern the origin of your emerald, as you won’t have a jardin. If there is something in your synthetic stone, you’ll know something is off immediately. All gemstones reveal their formation within the crystal structure and carry trace element signatures. While the chemical signature is the best way to identify a stone’s origin, you have to destroy a piece of your stone. I don’t think many people would be interested in having a hole in their $25,000 emerald to see if it’s natural or synthetic. Thus by using high-powered microscopes and polarized light, gemmologists can see signatures as to how gemstones crystallized and your stone is left untouched. Synthetic emeralds are produced either through the flux method or the hydrothermal method. These methods should be disclosed when selling synthetic/lab-created emeralds; if not, ask.
If you're buying emeralds or you’re not sure if the ones you have are natural emeralds, you’re best to seek professional help from a certified gemmologist to identify them or buy them for you. Otherwise, here are several tips to remember if you find yourself in the market to buy one.
First, most “emeralds” you find will be imitations. Second, look at the name of the product. Always question something if you see anything attached to the name aside from “natural.” Many stone dealers will sell items with “emerald” in the title to make the stone more alluring. Under Section § 23.26 of the Federal Trade Commission's Summary of Basis and Purpose for the Revised Jewelry Guides states, "It is unfair or deceptive to mark or describe an industry product with the incorrect varietal name.” Titles like “emerald tourmaline,” “emerald quartz,” or “yellow emerald” and “emerald colour” should raise suspicion right away.
Another example is if there is a name in front other than a location, “Soude emerald” is one example of emerald-coloured glass, a common cheap imitation. After looking at the title, look at the price. First, emeralds are not inferior, and if you think you’re getting a fantastic deal for a clean stone with vivid colour, it’s probably not a natural emerald. Second, even synthetic emeralds are more costly than some natural imitations like tourmaline, diopside and dyed quartz. Third, if you are buying emeralds in jewellery, check the metal and surrounding stones if there are some. It’s not worth setting an emerald in plated metal and cubic zirconias; you significantly devalue your emerald. Finally, if you buy rough emeralds in bulk or individual specimens, check your stones and always buy from a well-reviewed source. Look for a hexagonal prism shape or something to indicate 6-fold symmetry in your crystals.
While these are just some quick pointers for general interest, I suggest some of the links and books below if you are interested in more information.
Well-rounded information regarding the formation of emeralds, grading of emeralds and identifying synthetic or imitation stones with some deeper technical insight.
GIA encyclopedia page for emeralds. Very friendly for just starting to understand gemstones, with links to countless articles about emerald mines, unique specimens, emerald history and more
Gemmology by Peter read - A gemmologist bible; make sure to look for the latest addition as there is always new information to be added to textbooks. This book covers ALL the gemstones and how to use the tools to identify naturals, synthetics and imitations. Warning this book is very technical.
Jewels: a secret history by Victoria Finlay - an excellent read into the history and lore behind some of the more renowned gemstones.
Stay tuned for next month as we discuss pearls, moonstones, or alexandrite—one of those stones or June.